Abstract: Carpooling schemes for mutual cost benefits between the driver and the passengers has a long history. However, the convenience of driving alone, the increasing level of car ownership, and the difficulties in finding travelers with matching timing and routes keep car occupancy low. Technology is a key enabler of online platforms which facilitate the ride matching process and lead to an increase in carpooling services. Smart carpooling services may be an alternative and enrichment for mobility, which can help smart cities (SCs) reduce traffic congestion and gas emissions but require the appropriate architecture to support connection with the city infrastructure such as high-occupancy vehicle lanes, parking space, tolls, and the public transportation services. To better understand the evolution of carpooling platforms in SCs, bibliometric analysis of three separate specialized literature collections, combined with a systematic literature review, is performed. It is identified that smart carpooling platforms could generate additional value for participants and SCs. To deliver this value to an SC, a multi-sided platform business model is proposed, suitable for a carpooling service provider with multiple customer segments and partners. Finally, after examining the SC structure, a carpooling platform architecture is presented, which interconnects with the applicable smart city layers.
Keywords: carpooling; business model; smart mobility; smart city; project; platform